|M.Sc Student||Hadary Ariel|
|Subject||The Changes in the Characteristics of Passengers and|
Travel Patterns in the Carmelit During the Years
1974-1993 and the Implications for Its
|Department||Department of Architecture and Town Planning||Supervisor||Professor Emeritus Shefer Daniel|
The Carmelit is an underground mode of transportation in Haifa, founded in the year 1958.
Continuous decrease in ridership along with deterioration in its safety terminated its operation in 1986.
In 1992, the remodeled Carrnelit was opened, after an external renovation process but without any change in its route. As a result, the level of ridership remained low.
The main reasons for this situation stems from the following: increase in the rate of car ownership and in the willingness to use it, along with passive policy of Haifa Municipality concerning parking, especially in the CBD; efficient service by the city’s bus system; significant changes in land uses, which have had pronounced effect on the Carmelit travel demand.
The first part of the thesis is a comparative analysis of three similar surveys which had been done about Carmelit passengers, in the years 1974, 1979 and 1986. Each of these surveys was designed to examine the characteristics of the passengers, the mode, the travel purpose and the usage of substitute modes.
The second part of this thesis includes investigation of the demand elasticity for two different transportation modes in Haifa, according to changes in travel fares during the years 1974-1993. Price elasticity of demand was found to range from -.2 to -.6 in the Carmelit and a higher range for the bus system. The substitution rate between these two modes was 40%.
The conclusion of this work is:
The bus service successfully competes with the Carmelit and the patronage of these two modes suffers greatly from the advantages of the private car. Internalization of the Carmelit in the overall public transportation system could increase the number of the Carmelit riderships thus strengthening the Hadar CBD.