|M.Sc Thesis||Department of Architecture and Town Planning|
|Supervisor:||Prof. Emeritus Churchman Arza|
The main aim of the research was to examine the differences in the ability of access to employment and services among men and women in different types of suburbs.
The research took place in two communities in the Haifa Metropolitan area: in Timrat and Kiryat Tivon. Both communities are suburbs of Haifa, but at a different state of development relating to employment and services. The research populations are in the age group of 35 - 45 years in both communities. The sample included 100 families.
The interviewees mentioned that the place they live in has a good quality of life. They are satisfied with living in their community and were ready to recommend to other families with children to join. The disadvantages mentioned by the interviewees were lack of community services for adults and children, lack of cultural activities and places of entertainment and problems of accessibility in transportation.
Timrat and Tivon have the same sources of employment: the Haifa area. The percentage of employment is higher than the national average (92% in Timrat, 86% in Tivon). Most of the employees belong to liberal and academic professions and work as salaried employees.
The differences in the services offered in Timrat and Tivon are a result of Timrat’s smaller size. There are services that don’t exist yet in Timrat. Nevertheless, the research showed that most of the residents of Tivon and Timrat use the internal services of their community, but use higher level services outside their community.
Most of the women belong to liberal and academic professions that include teaching, nursing etc: and that is why their places of work are within their community or in nearby places. Therefore the commuting time and the hours of work are short. In contrast to this the men belong to the scientific - academic profession and work outside their community at a distance of 30 - 40 km. Their commuting time and the hours of work are therefore longer.
There are differences in every community between men and women in their use and evaluation of public transport, in the available means of transport of every family and in tasks in the home. In Tivon the men work far away and take the car, while the women work in their community and use public transport. In Timrat the situation is different. Because of the lack of public transport every family has two cars, women have options to work outside their community
The main conclusion of the research is that the existences of these kinds of communities which are located in the suburbs fits mainly a population of average or higher socio-economic level, who is well educated and own a car. Development of accessible places of work, trade and public services will encourage the extension of public transportation. This will enable other groups of the population who want to live in these communities to come and live there.