טכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל
הטכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל - בית הספר ללימודי מוסמכים  
M.Sc Thesis
M.Sc StudentInbar Strul-Dabull
SubjectMapping of So2 Concentrations in Metropolitan Haifa and the
Impact of New Standards on Regional Planning.
DepartmentDepartment of Architecture and Town Planning
Supervisors Professor Emeritus Mamane Yaacov
Full Professor Amir Shaul


Abstract

In April 1992, a new S02 ambient standard was amended, as a part of the Abatement of Nuisance (Air Pollution) Regulations. Since this standard was stricter than the previous one, the major S02 polluters were required to control their emissions. These changes consisted of routing use of lower sulphur fuel and longer Intermittent Control System operation. This research reviews the situation before and after the introduction of the new standard, and proposes a planning policy in the Haifa district.

The methodology of this research is based on identifying three typical characteristics of the Haifa region: S02 concentrations, Intermittent Control System operation and exposure of population to S02 levels. These characteristics were compared for the period of one year before the new S02 standard was amended and one year after. The results were expected to show the effect of the new standards on the three characteristics and study the effect on regional planning in Haifa.

Evaluation of the S02 concentrations indicated a positive trend in the reduction of S02 concentrations and in maintaining of low concentrations for longer periods of times. These low concentrations were often one tenth of the standard and conformed with most of its components. The only element exceeding the regulation was the absolute standard. Several times a year the concentrations were found to exceed this value.

Contrary to popular opinion, it was found that S02 concentrations in the Krayot region were relatively lower and the air quality was relatively better than other regions in Haifa. Examination of Intermittent Control System indicated that it could control S02 levels, but if S02 emissions would rise, it would not suffice.

A substantial drop in the population exposure in Haifa to S02 concentrations is noted since the new standard was amended. Tel Amal is one of the neighborhoods that showed no improvement. Other neighborhoods with high exposure were Nesher and Pisgat Golda area. It is concluded that the actions taken to reduce S02 concentrations are successful and the concentrations are now under control. The results of this research indicate that the present Situation is satisfactory, as far as S02 levels and their impact on the environment is considered. At the same time it is advised to keep in mind that the region is under development and elements of this research should he incorporated in planning in order to avoid future damages.