טכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל
הטכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל - בית הספר ללימודי מוסמכים  
M.Sc Thesis
M.Sc StudentKlevitsky Ekaterina
SubjectThree-Dimensional Composition in Architectural Education in
The 1920's (Bauhaus and Vkhutemas)
DepartmentDepartment of Architecture and Town Planning
Supervisors Professor Emeritus Gabriela Goldschmidt
Dr. Ita Hienze-Greenber


Abstract

During the 1920's, the BAUHAUS school in Germany and the VKhUTEMAS school in Russia offered new directions in architectural and artistic education. The development of a preliminary course and the incorporation of three-dimensional studies in the form of abstract composition were two of the main highlights of these new directions.

The roles played by three-dimensional studies were varied. Composition involving many shapes represented the point of view of the teachers who introduced the concept into the curricula of the BAUHAUS and the VKhUTEMAS. Composition also fulfilled roles that were not stated or formulated. In research, three-dimensional composition is conceived and discussed as a homogenous phenomenon, contributing to the formulation of new approaches to the design process and conceptualization processes. Three-dimensional studies provided the designer with tools of conception and tools of representation. In the framework of the preliminary course, abstract three-dimensional composition represented one of the means of study of the beginning student. The beginner was provided with the tools enabling him to express his ideas, acquire a repertoire of shapes, and develop a professional memory.

Discussion of three-dimensional composition is based on the discussion of a new type of creation and the search for tools of representation. Abstract three-dimensional studies became an integral part of artistic and educational processes, which were characteristic of the period. A discussion of three-dimensional composition enables revealing the role played by new professional education in relation to extensive searches, and exposing a common denominator for the development in parallel of the BAUHAUS and the VKhUTEMAS.

In the period under discussion, composition represented a new type of creation and was complemented by artistic phenomena such as collage and montage. The creation of assembly and conformity of elements, which later became known as assemblage, relates to the formulation of ideas during construction, assembly and trial and error processes, and is based on vision, touch and movement. Visual thinking is complemented by tactile and kinetic aspects. During the creation of three-dimensional composition, the designer uses a spatial sketch as a tool of representation. The BAUHAUS and the VKhUTEMAS suggested using the spatial sketch as an architectural design tool which complemented the conventional two-dimensional sketch.

Three-dimensional studies sought for tools of representation expressing the new concept of space. In the 1920's, the duration of perception and its representation were at the focus of avant-garde search in cinema, photography, and theater. In architecture, the three-dimensional model and axonometric drawing expressed a perception of the object in movement from different points of view, as opposed to representation of the central perspective. Abstract three-dimensional composition revealed to the student the value of the model and axonometry as tools of representation, providing a solution to the new spatial ideas, and as research and analysis tools of the object. Abstract three-dimensional studies contributed to the formulation of the modern architect's process of designing and defined the development of architectural education.