טכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל
הטכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל - בית הספר ללימודי מוסמכים  
M.Sc Thesis
M.Sc StudentHazan Gilad
SubjectSustainable Development in Metropolitan Areas in Israel:
Integrating Transportation and Land Uses
DepartmentDepartment of Architecture and Town Planning
Supervisors Professor Pnina Plaut
Professor Emeritus Daniel Shefer


Abstract

The past 15 years have seen the emerging realization that widespread trends of metropolitan development are responsible for significant environmental and social problems. Sustainable development (SD) is a new approach that is now evolving for mitigation of these problems. In the context of metropolitan planning, much attention has been given to the urban sprawl. Lately, a growing consensus has been emerging as to the problems related to this development pattern and to the available means for their resolution. 

This research gives a wide prospective on SD in Israel metropolitan planning realm: available guidelines for mitigation of problems related to urban sprawl, the capability to advance those guidelines in current planning practice and to widen the possibilities to evaluate planning accordingly.

A list of 7 policy guidelines was drawn from the current literature. Those guidelines were taken from deferent fields and spatial levels, but all can potentially advance SD in metropolitan level planning. Then, the role of the SD guidelines was examined in 4 new metropolitan plans. Method of research included an in-depth survey among planners, accompanied by a qualitative data analysis. The results revealed a significant progress towards SD in defined aspects such as preservation of farmlands. Nevertheless, crucial difficulties were found in other aspects, such as reduction of transportation externalities. Those difficulties were found in five key dimensions: narrow internal agenda (scope of relevant planning issues), exclusion of policy instruments, limited political capacity, and in some cases lack of internal and external Coordination.

At the theoretical level one can see the advancement toward SD as a process of shifting between policy paradigms (according to Hall`s conceptual framework). In this respect, this study suggest that scope and rate of the current paradigm shift can be affected by four types of limitations: (a) conceptual limitations that relate to knowledge and information about the acute problems, (b) limitations in the suitability of current policy platform (i.e. plan format and tools), (c) limitations due to current power distribution and (d) limitations due to ineffective communication.  

The last part of the study included a new evaluation framework for sustainable development. The proposed framework is based on spatial analysis in a hierarchical structure of three levels: The single parameter, the theme (set of complementary parameters) and the Inter-thematic level. This new evaluation framework can indicate spatial trends and problems, and thus pinpoint differences in proposed planning, and contribute to its improvement.