טכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל
הטכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל - בית הספר ללימודי מוסמכים  
M.Sc Thesis
M.Sc StudentShahar Lior
SubjectVertical Deformation in the Carmel Mountain
DepartmentDepartment of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Supervisor Professor Gilad Even-Tzur


Abstract

The hypothesis claims the existence of tectonic movements surrounding the Carmel fault, which cause an uplifting of the Carmel Mountain in relation to its geographical surroundings. The main goal of the research is to monitor vertical deformation in the Carmel Mountain, and a secondary goal is to monitor spatial deformation in the entire north of Israel, using the wide GPS control network.

The research is based on measurements undertaken using two independent geodetic tools: precise leveling and GPS, and makes use of the two-step analysis of dynamical networks. The small number of measurement cycles results in the choice of the kinematical model of velocity fields.

The leveling result shows a significant uplifting of the Carmel Mountain at a rate of up to 2mm/yr in comparison with the Allonim-Shefar'am Hills, and at a rate of about 1mm/yr in comparison with its north-western slopes. The result indicates changes over time of the tendency of the western Carmel slopes compared to the ridge.

The GPS measurements analysis indicates an uplifting tendency of the Carmel Mountain compared with its coastal plane but we restrict this result because of suspicion of a local instability in the coastal plane points. The GPS network did not indicate additional significant vertical deformation and we attribute it to the precision weakness of the vertical component that protrudes in a case of a small number of measurements.

The analysis of the horizontal deformation indicates a distancing of the western Galilee from the Carmel area at a rate of up to 4mm/yr and a movement of nearing at a rate of up to 3mm/yr between the Menashe and the Iron Hills and the Carmel Mountain. A significant movement defines the Golan Heights and Hermon Mountain in comparison with the Carmel at a rate of 4-7mm/yr with a direction of NNW. The Eastern Galilee shows, in some cases, a tendency of NNW movement at a rate of up to 4mm/yr. The behavior of the Dead-Sea Rift in northern Israel is indicated by the relative movement of the Golan Heights and the Eastern Galilee. The behavior significantly indicates a left lateral movement along the Dead-Sea Rift in a rate of 3mm/yr. We restrict the results of the GPS network and the north-eastern part of the leveling network with the definition of absence of degree of freedom. Additional measurements of both networks are expected to increase precision, which will increase the potential for revealing deformations.