טכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל
הטכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל - בית הספר ללימודי מוסמכים  
M.Sc Thesis
M.Sc StudentHadad )Sella( Chen
SubjectRunoff as a Resource for Urban Landscape Development
DepartmentDepartment of Architecture and Town Planning
Supervisors Professor Tal Alon-Mozes
Professor Emeritus Naomi Carmon
Full Thesis text - in Hebrew Full thesis text - Hebrew Version


Abstract

Runoff is that part of rainwater that reaches the ground and does not evaporate, evapotranspirate or infiltrate, but flows above the ground. The increasing area of impervious land in urban districts contributes to the increase in the quantity of runoff water and to the decrease in the amount of the water that infiltrates the ground, and in some cases to destructive flooding. This thesis deals with urban landscape development, which takes into account aspects of runoff management: How to implement it in Israel, and what are its advantages over conventional planning?

The thesis is part of a comprehensive research conducted at the Technion, dealing with Water-Sensitive Planning - WaSP.  In it, “urban runoff" is considered a resource, rather than a nuisance. Previous studies have focused on runoff as a water resource; the current work focuses on runoff as a scenic resource within the urban environment, particularly in residential neighborhoods.

The work comprises four stages:

·        Studying aspects of landscape development that regard runoff as a resource, including a summary concerning sustainable urban landscape development and basic hydrological and environmental principles dealing with urban runoff management. 

·        Compilation of practical knowledge about neighborhood landscape development relating to runoff as a resource.

·        Implementation and examination of the knowledge that has been learned in the previous stages, in a planning case study - a neighborhood landscape development project in a specific neighborhood (neighborhood 2012 in Ra'anana), whi ch is currently in the stages of planning, and represents a typical urban development  situation above the Israeli Shore Aquifer.

·        Drawing of conclusions and consolidation of recommendations for modifications in the processes of urban neighborhood landscape development and their outcome, so that they would consider to runoff as a resource.

Based on the above, several recommendations are formulated and organized according to the following components: Principles of planning; changes in the neighborhood planning process; modifications in the design of drainage systems; revisions in the training of professionals who are involved in the planning of residential neighborhoods; and increasing public awareness.

The conclusions of this work identify some contributions of neighborhood landscape development that takes runoff management into consideration: (a) Increasing infiltration into the ground: in average, for every dunam built in accordance with our recommendations, there is an addition of 70 cubic meters, as compared with conventional planning; (b) Contribution to the neighborhood's aesthetical appearance; (c) Contribution to environmental awareness; and  (d) Economic benefits.