|Ph.D Student||Goshen Tzipora|
|Subject||Transformational Leadership: Empowerment, Ethics,|
Commitment and Performance
Case Study in Youth Village
|Department||Department of Industrial Engineering and Management||Supervisors||Professor Alan Kirschenbaum|
|Dr. Micha Popper|
|Full Thesis text - in Hebrew|
This study examines the "how and why" employees are influenced by a transformational leader. It investigates the manner by which ethical factors of such a leader influence followers. These aspects are central to the original theory of transformational leadership formulated by Burns (1978), but have been neglected in empirical research literature which has focused on "effective variables" (Bass & Avolio, 1994).
The study focuses on a detailed case study conducted at a youth village. Collection of data was done by in-depth interviews conducted over a three year period. Additional data were collected from several observations and analysis of documents. Although the study is qualitative, it integrates quantitative analytical tools. The data was analyzed employing "grounded theory" (Strauss & Corbin, 1990), focusing on analysis of several consecutive accumulative phases.
The study revealed the following main findings:
a. The strong motivation and effectiveness of employees of a transformational leader are accomplished through an empowerment process by responding to their following needs: belonging, meaning, self-efficacy, autonomy and influence. The need of belonging is rarely mentioned in the theory of psychological empowerment at workplace (Spreitzer, 1996) but our findings show that the need of belonging is bestowed through support, encouragement, protection against lack of boundaries between work and home and the feeling of fellowship in the organization. Responding to the need of belonging is mainly connected to the ethical humanitarian aspects of the transformational leader which affect the worker's empowerment, internationalization of the leader's goals, satisfaction, commitment and extra-role performance. Behavioral elements of the transformational leader: Individualized Consideration, Inspirational Motivation, Idealized Influence and Intellectual Stimulation, jointly and severally affect the response to the needs of the multi aspects of psychological empowerment in the workplace.
b. The ethical aspects of the transformational leader are first and foremost reflected in his/her vision. The values included in this vision reflect post conventional level of moral development (Kohlberg 1976) which is characterized by a universal moral view expressed by the concern for each individual within the organization. The ethical values of the transformational leader appearing in his/her vision are also assimilated in the organization's culture and are expressed in caring climates of its subsystems.
c. Workers expect the transformational leader who is their indirect supervisor to mainly provide the needs of meaning and organizational belonging which give them the feeling that their skills are utilized for positive purposes.