|M.Sc Student||Daniel Kahana|
|Subject||Alternative Transport Oriented Urban Development: Applying|
the Discrete Choice Model
|Department||Department of Architecture and Town Planning||Supervisors||Professor Gat Daniel|
|Full Professor Shiftan Yoram|
Urban development, in all its various aspects has become a hot topic of public discussion. The physical, material as well as cultural effects of accelerated development influence all of Israeli society. The research presented here deals with an ever more dominant aspect of this development, intra-urban transport, and its necessary integration within the overall planning process.
The pressures of urban growth, technological progress and globalisation, together with the steady rise in income and the standards of living, have led to an urban life style ever more dependent on the private car, causing an ever increasing rise in the rate of accidents, pollution and a near total urban traffic jam.
The issue is not one of eliminating the private car,but rather, how alternate auxiliary systems can be encouraged. Pedestrian access, the use of bicycles and an efficient use of public transport systems clearly demand integrated planning, efficient exploitation of land adjacent to mass transport interchanges and the resulting direct access to public, commercial, cultural and service centers.
All this is not new and Israeli planners are well aware of the problem as can be seen by the weight given to public transit planning in the three metropolitan centers of Israel - an attempt to alleviate the growing pressures of density and environmental degradation. In this essay an attempt is made to stress the generative and land-use shaping role of urban transit - in addition to its service role. In other words, integrated land-use and transit planning is pro-active rather than merely re-active.
This research studies ways to integrate a public transit system into urban spatial planning so as to create a built up environment that will encourage a wide use of walking, cycling and transit patronage, thus reducing the nearly total relliance on the private automobile.
Part One: Background theory.
This section assesses the phenomenon of Urban Sprawl, its negative, but also its positive aspects, while focusing on its traffic consequences. Ways of coping with these consequences are described with reference to the relevant literature. Such coping strategies exist at two levels. The micro level deals with neighborhood and suburb scale. The macro level deals with the urban metropolitan scale.
Next, classic transportation models are presented as a means to understanding processes of modal choice that simulate travel preferences and the causes that affect these choices between the different modes of transportation.
Part Two: Computer Simulations.
A computer-assisted model of a suburban region was built on the principles of the TOD. This included data inputs appertaining to urban systems: housing, employment, mass transport, pedestrian routing and public transport lines.
Onto this imaginary region McFadden's discrete choice model was applied in order to assess user transport preferences (trade-offs) as translated to transport choice: destination, route and mode. The research approach has made the combination of pedestrian and bicycle use the comparative paradigm.
Part Three: Public Transport Oriented Planning Applied the Southern Metropolitan Region.
The successful worldwide examples of TOD and their detailed study, could form the basis for dealing with the regional problems of the southern parts of Israel. Seen as an integrated whole, the application of TOD principles could significantly contribute to economic and social growth and development whilst protecting and even improving environmental values.
Based on the TOD principles, this section defines the connection between these principles and their application, to the region as a whole, and to the town of Ofakim specifically.