טכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל
הטכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל - בית הספר ללימודי מוסמכים  
M.Sc Thesis
M.Sc StudentBheri Aisar
SubjectMonitoring Vertical Deformation of Buildings in the Dead
Sea Area
DepartmentDepartment of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Supervisor Professor Gilad Even-Tzur


Abstract

An interesting phenomenon is demonstrated in the Dead Sea in recent years, where holes are created with no prior warning or signs. Evidence indicates that large cavities exist in the Ein - Boqeq area, hosting large structure of hotels. This strengthens the need for monitoring the vertical deformation of the hotels in the area. The deformation model, suggested in this work, may assist structural and foundation engineers in the process of inspecting and concluding the structural functionality of the structures in the area. A deformation monitoring network for the measurement of vertical movement of the hotel structures was design and built in the Ein-Boqeq area. One group of points was positioned on the roofs of three hotels: the Hyatt, the Golden Tulip and the Crown Plaza. A network of six points was set on each of the roofs. A second group of external points, including two G1 geodynamic points (at Massada and Neve Zohar), was also set. Three surveying campaigns were carried out with a time span of three and a half months between them. Both precise leveling and GPS measurements were used in each of the campaigns. Precise leveling measurement was used for the high accuracy measurement of height differences between points on the same roof. GPS measurement was used for tying several roof points to the external points. This was done for purposes of detecting any vertical deformation of the building as a rigid body. The measurement results were analyzed by the Two-Step analysis method. The model chosen for describing the movement of the points was the kinematical model of a velocity field. Results show that the GPS measured network of points did not detect any significant vertical movements. The sub-networks, which were measured via precise leveling, detected relative vertical  movement velocity of less than 2.5 mm/year significantly.