טכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל
הטכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל - בית הספר ללימודי מוסמכים  
M.Sc Thesis
M.Sc StudentRappaport Orit
SubjectThe Development and Evaluation of Labels for Hazardous
Materials
DepartmentDepartment of Industrial Engineering and Management
Supervisors Professor Avi Parush
Professor Emeritus Daniel Gopher


Abstract

This study consists of two parts: The first part is devoted to the development of new labels for hazardous materials (pesticides) according to human factors principles. Many recommendations regarding the formats for constructing labels were collected and studied (colors, placement, using sections, icons, etc.) and a new structure for a complete label is suggested. According to the new structure the information is placed in the order of the likely actions associated with the product.

The  second part of the study deals with the evaluation of the suggested new labels and their comparison with the existing ones. An experiment with 108 subjects was conducted in which the search time for specific information items in the labels was measured as a function of label design (existing vs. new). Also, the rate of errors of interpetation of the two label designs was measured and finaly, half of the participants (groups 3, 4) were given evaluation questionnaires in order to obtain a wide and varried evaluation of the new design. The experiment involved four groups of participants of which two were exposed either to the new design or to the exsiting one, while the remaining two were exposed both to the new and exsiting designs.

The results show that for all measures, the new design, in most cases, was related to better results: Lower search rates, less errors and better evaluations. Even when measures were not in favor of the new design there was no case in which the exsisting design was significantly superior to the new design. The study has also demonstrated that similarly to former studies the spesific labels selected for the experiment also had a significant effect on the results.

Finally, theoretical and practical implications are discussed and guidelines for the composing of hazardous material labels are suggested.