טכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל
הטכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל - בית הספר ללימודי מוסמכים  
M.Sc Thesis
M.Sc StudentMeretz Orit
SubjectHousing Updating in Multi-Family Buildings in Israel:
Analysis and Evaluation
DepartmentDepartment of Architecture and Town Planning
Supervisor Professor Emeritus Naomi Carmon


Abstract

Nearly two thirds of the housing stock in Israel, mostly that which was built before 1975, do not match current standards. As a consequence, some residents leave the neighborhoods, causing social, physical and financial deterioration. This study refers to the challenge of "updating" the existing housing, without destroying it or evacuating its tenants, by dwellings' enlargements and technical upgrading of the buildings.

Self-help enlargements, in which the "enlargers" has to obtain building permits, are common in Israel. Survey of the relevant international literature leads to the conclusion, that this activity has many virtues - personal, social, financial and environmental - which exceed its faults. Therefore, it should be encouraged and extended as a strategy for urban renewal. The objectives of this study were to search for the motives of housing-updating and evaluate its outcomes, in order to learn how: (a) to improve the quality of the outcomes; (b) to increase the quantity of the updated apartments, buildings and neighborhoods. 

The study analyses 70 multi-family 3-10 stories buildings, which were enlarged in the 80's and the 90's, and 184 households from those buildings, who enlarged their flats. The sources of the study were mini-studies conducted by Technion students throughout the state of Israel, each based on "on-site" observations and questioning of 1-4 residents. The enlarged buildings are from different types: linear-slabs, point-blocks, clusters and terraced. 66% of the residents were independent "enlargers" from the middle classes, who didn't use any public help. The other 34% were from low-middle classes, and used the help of the national program for the rehabilitation of distressed neighborhoods ("Project Renewal"), which assisted in obtaining licenses, in planning the enlargements, and in the provision of subsidized loans.

An analysis-pattern was developed in order to survey and evaluate the characteristics of the enlargements, from physical, social, economical and administrative aspects, with respect to three levels: the dwelling, the building, and the environment. The study distinguishes between the enlargements, by the framework of operation, by the type of the original buildings, and by the position of flats within the buildings. A catalog of the enlarged plans and facades was created, and it offers designers a variety of enlarging possibilities for each building type. Finally, the study offers recommendations and design guidelines, as a basis for developing a comprehensive national policy for encouraging the operation of qualitative updating of old and new housing, which will extend the life of the buildings, and improve the life of residents and their neighborhoods.