טכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל
הטכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל - בית הספר ללימודי מוסמכים  
Ph.D Thesis
Ph.D StudentAlon Davidy
SubjectTheoretical and Experimental Study of Remote Sensing
for Measuring Emission of Pollutants
DepartmentDepartment of Mechanical Engineering
Supervisor Professor Emeritus Zvirin Yoram (Deceased)


Abstract

The problem of air pollution by motor vehicles is becoming severe in the world. The standard methods for measuring the concentration of pollutants emitted by vehicles may be performed only for very limited vehicle samples because of their cost and complexity. In order to deduce statistical conformities for estimating real world emission inventories for a motor vehicle parc, a novel method of “Remote Sensing” (RS) is developed to enable measurements of pollutants emitted by a passing vehicles. Infra-Red (IR) and Ultra-Violet (UV) radiation absorption is applied to monitor CO, HC, NO and CO2 mole fractions. The research main objective is to develop a theoretical model for the interpretation of the RS measurements of gaseous pollutants and Particulate Matter (PM) emissions.  A new method was developed for calculating the Optical Thickness (OT) of the participating media containing exhaust gas mixture with scattering particles. The radiation absorption and scattering efficencies of the particles were calculated according to Mie or Rayleigh theories, and the gaseous absorption coefficients by the Line-by-Line (LBL) method. Numerical results (for OT) compare favorably with experimental data. The derived gaseous pollutants concentrations depend only on the ratios of the CO and NO volumteric flow rates to that of the CO2. It is estimated that the errors involved in the calculations are small, since the model compensates for errors resulting from different effects, such as the location of the exhaust gas plume with respect to the beam, etc. This model may be applied in current RS technologies as a supplement tool for Inspection Maintenance (I/M) procedures.